'Roads to Academic Reading'  Resources section:
When you read an academic text, you are expected to do much more than simply understand the words of the text and summarize main ideas.
At college or university level, students are also expected to:
 recognize the author's purpose and possible bias.
 differentiate between facts and author's opinions.
 challenge questionable assumptions and unsupported claims.
 think about possible consequences of the author's claims.
 integrate information across multiple sources.
 identify rival hypotheses, possible contradictions and competing views.
 evaluate evidence and draw their own conclusions instead of simply accepting what the author says.
These are just some of the basic components of critical reasoning, and doing all this isn't easy:If you don’t know the meaning of the words you read, it becomes almost impossible.
But understanding the words isn't enough  critically evaluating the information you read is a key digital competence  one of the four most important skills that all citizens  not just students  need to master in the twentyfirst century. Together with critical reasoning, three more key skills include creative thinking, collaboration and communication. Because these four skills all start with the letter C, they are often called the '4Cs'.
Many of the vocabulary exercises on this site are designed to help you develop these 4Cs  you can do these exercises on your own, anytime, anywhere. (See table below).
Resource # 1:
Lists of exercises that focus on critical evaluation of information and academic literacy
Highfrequency academic vocabulary 
Exercise # 
Exercise focus:

Exercise 4 
Questions to evaluate alternative treatments.


Exercise 4 
Questions to help you do a critical analysis of information.


Exercise 4 
Identifying hidden assumptions.


Exercise 4 
How to evaluate available information.


Exercise 5 
Which chart is distorting information?


Exercise 3 
What are valid conclusions based on?


Exercise 5 
How taking something out of context can distort meaning.


Exercise 3 
Questions that help you to examine data.


Exercise 5 
What can cause distortion?


Exercise 4 
Can you read between the lines?


Exercise 4 
Questions to ask yourself when you evaluate research data.


Exercise 5 
Same evidence, different conclusions.


Exercise 4 
Exposing flaws or weak points in a writer's argument.


Exercise 4 
Inferring meaning from context.


Exercise 4 
Same numbers, different interpretations.


Exercise 4 
Which questions can help you think logically?


Exercise 4 
What's similar, what's different?


Exercise 4 
Which questions can help you check these statistics?

Exercise 5 
Evaluating information published on the internet.


Exercise 4 
How our irrational assumptions can affect our emotions.


Exercise 3 
How do I know if information on the internet is reliable?


Exercise 4 
Reading between the lines – use your clues.


Exercise 4 
Questions to help you evaluate information.


Exercise 4 
Lies, big lies and statistics.

Highfrequency academic vocabulary 
Exercise # 
Exercise focus: 

Exercise 4 
SCAMPER  strategy for creative thinking.


Exercise 4 
Keys to creative thinking.


Exercise 5 
What are the foundations of creativity?

Exercise 3 
Relationship between creativity and knowledge.

Exercises that focus on academic literacy
Highfrequency academic vocabulary 
Exercise # 
Exercise focus: 
Exercise 3 
What's in an abstract? 

Exercise 3 
What is an "acknowledgement page"? 

Exercise 4 
Why do writers sometimes write ambiguous sentences? 

Exercise 4 
Assumptions  the building blocks of scientific theories. 

Exercise 4 
What makes presentations more coherent? 

Exercise 4 
Recognizing markers that signal contrast. 

Exercise 4 
Markers that signal doubt or uncertainty. 

Exercise 4 
Problems with defining a word  narrow and broad definitions. 

Exercise 3 
What can deviation tell us about test scores? 

Exercise 3 
What can we learn from a distribution? 

Exercise 4 
What is empirical evidence? 

Exercise 3 
What does a 'degree of error' mean? 

Exercise 5 
Why is a theoretical framework important? 

Exercise 3 
Why is a hypothesis important? 

Exercise 4 
What are "hedges" in an academic text? 

Exercise 4 
The purpose of a literature review. 

Exercise 5 
Correlation or cause and effect? 

Exercise 5 
What does 'intervention' mean in a research context? 

Exercise 4 
What does 'manipulation' mean in a research context? 

Exercise 6 
How monitoring can improve your reading comprehension. 

Exercise 4 
Why are outcomes difficult to measure? 

Exercise 4 
How Venn diagrams work. 

Exercise 4 
What are some parameters for scientific research? 

Exercise 3 
How to avoid plagiarism 

Exercise 4 
What are 'random' mean in a research context? 

Exercise 4 
What you are expected to write in your literature review. 

Exercise 5 
A learning strategy to help you remember information. 

Exercise 4 
What are you expected to do when you write a summary? 

Exercise 4 
Differences between a theme and a summary. 

Exercise 3 
Find the clues that tell you what the writer really thinks. 
Resource #2:
Links to 300 sets of flashcards and exercises for CEFR words that also appear on Coxhead's (2000) Academic Word List:
Sublist 1 Sublist 2 Sublist 3 Sublist 4 Sublist 5 Sublist 6 Sublist 7 Sublist 8 Sublist 9 Sublist 10
AWL Sublist 1 
CEFR level 
B2 

B1 

A2 

B2 

B2 

B2 

A2 

B1 

B2 

C2 

B2 

B1 

B2 

B2 

C1 

C1 

B2 

B1 

B2 

B2 

B2 

B2 

B1 

C1 

B2 

B2 

B2 

B1 

C2 

B1 

B1 

B2 

B1 

B2 

B1 

B2 

C1 

B2 

B1 

B1 

B2 

B1 

B1 

B2 

B1 

B2 

B2 

B2 

C1 
AWL sublist 2 
CEFR level 
B1 

B2 

B2 

B2 

B2 

B2 

B2 

B2 

B2 

B1 

B2 

B2 

B2 

B1 

B1 

B2 

B2 

C1 

C1 

B2 

B2 

B2 

B2 

B2 

B2 

Unlisted 

C1 

B1 

B1 

B2 

B2 

C1 

B2 

B2 

B1 

B1 
AWL Sublist 3 
CEFR level 
B2 

B2 

Unlisted 

C1 

B2 

B2 

C2 

B2 

C2 

C1 

C2 

B2 

A2 

B2 

B2 

C1 

C2 

B2 

C2 

B1 

B1 

C1 

C2 

B2 

B1 

C2 

B2 

C1 

B2 

C1 

B1 

B2 

C1 

B1 

C1 

B2 

B2 

B2 

B2 

C2 
AWL Sublist 4 
CEFR level 
B1 

B2 

B2 

B2 

B1 

C2 

B1 

B2 

B2 

B1 

B2 

B2 

B2 

B2 

A2 

C2 

C2 

C1 

C1 

B2 

B2 

C1 

B1 

B2 

C2 

Unlisted 

B2 

B1 

B1 

C2 

B1 

B2 

B1 

C1 

B2 
AWL sublist 5 
CEFR level 
B2 

B2 

B2 

B2 

B2 

B1 

B2 

B2 

B2 

C1 

B2 

C1 

B2 

C1 

C2 

B2 

B2 

C1 

C2 

C1 

B2 

B2 

B2 

C1 

B2 

C1 

B2 

C1 

C1 

C2 

B2 

C2 

B1 

B2 
AWL sublist 6 
CEFR level 
B2 

B1 

C1 

B2 

Unlisted 

B2 

C1 

B1 

C1 

C1 

C1 

B1 

C2 

B2 

B2 

C2 

C2 

C1 

B2 

C1 

C2 

C1 

B2 

B2 

B2 

C1 

B1 

C2 

Unlisted 
AWL sublist 7 
CEFR level 
C1 

C2 

C1 

C1 

B1 

B2 

B2 

Unlisted 

C1 

C2 

B1 

B2 

C1 

B2 

C2 

B2 

C2 

C1 

C2 

C1 

B2 

C1 

C2 

B2 

C2 

B2 

C2 

B1 

C2 

B2 
AWL sublist 8 
CEFR levels 
B1 

C2 

C2 

C2 

B2 

C1 

Unlisted 

B2 

C2 

B2 

Unlisted 

Unlisted 

C1 

B2 

C2 

C2 

Unlisted 

C1 

C2 

C1 

C1 

B1 

B2 

B2 
AWL sublist 9 
CEFR level 
C2 

C1 

C2 

C2 

C1 

C1 

C1 

Unlisted 

C2 

C1 

B2 

Unlisted 

C1 

C2 

C2 

C2 

B1 

C1 

B2 
AWL sublist 10 
CEFR levels 
B1 

C2 

C2 
Not all AWL words have exercises on this site. Words like 'commission' and 'legislation' that appear mostly in specific disciplines, do not have exercises yet.
For exercises on additional AWL words, see http://www.uefap.com/vocab/select/awl.htm